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Ya'aleh v'yavo -- additional prayer included in the Amidah and Grace After Meals on Rosh Chodesh and festivals

yad soledet bo (soledes) -- lit.: “pull back your hand”; the point where cooking occurs -- 113°F or 45°C

yahrtzeit -- lit.: year-time (Yiddish); anniversary of a death

yarmulke -- traditional head covering worn by Jewish men; also called a kippah

yasher koach -- lit.: straight strength (i.e. “way to go!”); used idiomatically to praise someone who has an honor in synagogue or performs a good deed; sometimes contracted as “Shkoyach; the proper response is, “Baruch ti'hiyeh” -- may you be blessed

yeridot hadorot (yeridos hadoros) -- lit.: “decline of the generations”; the further Jews are from Mount Sinai, the lower the clarity in Torah tradition

Yerushalayim -- Jerusalem, established by King David as the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago

yeshiva -- school of advanced Torah and Talmud study

yetzer hara -- lit.: bad inclination (sometimes shortened as Yetzer); a person's “animal side” which is inclined to be distracted from God (contrast to Yetzer Tov, the good inclination)

Yetziat Mitzrayim (Yetzias) -- the Exodus from Egypt, marking the birth of the Jewish people

YHVH -- a name of God which is written, but not pronounced; refers to God's transcendence of any limitations, including time and space

yichud -- lit.: seclusion; the prohibition of being secluded with a member of the opposite sex, other than close relatives

yichus -- family lineage

Yiddishkeit -- Jewishness (Yiddish); connoting the warmth and emotion of Torah observance

Yirat Shamayim (Yiras) -- fear of Heaven, one of the Six Constant Mitzvot (Deut. 10:20)

Yisrael -- another name of the biblical Jacob; generally refers to someone of Jewish lineage, other than a Kohen or Levi

Yizkor -- memorial service held in the synagogue, four times annually

Yom Kippur -- lit.: the day of atonement; a day of fasting and prayer, serving as the climax of the Ten Days of Repentance

Yom Tov -- holiday (e.g. Passover, Sukkot, etc.)

Yoreh De'ah -- section of Shulchan Aruch (Code of Jewish Law) dealing with prohibited matters such as kashrut, family purity, conversion

yotzei -- lit.: gone out, one who has properly fulfilled an obligation

Yovel -- jubilee year; the fiftieth year of the agricultural cycle in Israel, when inherited fields are returned to their original owners, and servants are emancipated (Leviticus ch. 25)

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