Rabbeinu Yonah -- author of the classic philosophical work, “Sha'arey Teshuva,” and commentary on Pirkei Avot (Spain 1180-1263)

Rabbi Akiva Eiger -- 1761-1837; author of classic book of rabbinic responsa

Rabbi Shimshon Rafael Hirsch -- 1808-1888; author of popular works of Jewish philosophy and commentary, and the leader of Torah Judaism in Germany during the tumultuous times of Enlightenment

Rabbi Yosef Karo -- author of “Shulchan Aruch,” the standard code of Jewish law; also wrote “Beit Yosef” on the Tur, and “Kesef Mishne” on the Rambam (Tzfat 1488-1575)

Radak -- acronym for Rabbi Dovid Kimchi (Provence 1160-1235), author of a classic commentary on the Bible featuring grammatical and historical data

Ramak -- acronym for Rabbi Moshe Cordevero (Tzfat 1522-1570), author of the classic kabbalistic works, “Tomer Devorah” and “Pardes Rimonim”

Rambam -- Maimonides; acronym of Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (12th century Egypt)

Ramban -- Nachmanides; acronym of Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman (13th century Spain)

Ramchal -- Rabbi Moshe Chaim Lutzatto (1707-1747), author of classic books of Jewish philosophy, including “Mesilat Yesharim” (Path of the Just) and “Derech Hashem” (The Way of God)

rasha -- wicked person

Rashba -- acronym for Rabbi Shlomo ben Aderet (Spain 1235-1310), author of a classic commentary on the Talmud

Rashi -- acronym of Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaki, the premier commentator on the Bible and Talmud (11th century France)

ratzon Hashem -- the Divine will

rav -- Hebrew for rabbi

rebbe -- leader of a chassidic group

rebbetzin -- a female teacher of Torah, and/or the wife of a rabbi

refuah shlaima -- lit.: complete healing; blessing given to someone who is sick

Reish Galusa (Galuta) -- lit.: “Head of the Diaspora” (Aramaic), Jewish leader appointed by the Babylonians

Rema -- acronym for Rabbi Moshe Isserles (Krakow 1540-1584), whose notes on the Shulchan Aruch were accepted as the standard halacha by all Ashkenazi Jewry

repetition of the Amidah -- at Shacharit and Mincha, the prayer leader (chazzan) repeats the Amidah aloud and includes additional public prayers, such as kedushah and the Priestly Blessing

reshut harabim -- A public domain in which more than 600,000 people travel daily; carrying on Shabbat in these areas and transferring items from private domains into public ones is prohibited by the Torah

revi'it (revi'is) -- a Hebrew measure for liquids (approx. 98cc - 3.3 oz)

Ribono Shel Olam -- Master of the Universe

Rishonim -- lit.: first ones; the great rabbinic commentators who lived from approx. 1000-1500 CE (contrast to Acharonim)

Ritva -- acronym for Rabbi Yom Tov ben Avraham Ashbili (Spain 1240-1320), author of a classic commentary on the Talmud

Ritzey -- additional paragraph inserted in the Amidah and Grace After Meals on Shabbat

Rosh Chodesh -- first day of a Jewish month

Rosh Hashana -- lit.: the head of the year; the Jewish New Year, celebrated on the first two days of Tishrei

rosh yeshiva -- lit.: head of the yeshiva; i.e. the dean

ruach -- spirit, wind

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